Types of Pipe Hangers & Clamps & Hardware & Pipe Saddles

Dannenbaum LLC supplies Pipe Hangers & Clamps & Hardware. We have extensive knowledge of pipe support components, including pipe clamps, beam attachments, cold shoes, and other hardware. We can custom design and build special supports. Our team of experts will analyze the condition and custom design pipe hangers and clamps to resolve special issues. For example, we can design constants, variables, U-bolts, pipe clamps and risers, pipe saddles, coverings, rod hangers assemblies, hardware, clevis hangers, beam attachments, and wall mounts. 

U-bolts

U-bolts are versatile fasteners used to secure pipes, conduits, cables, and machinery, or U with screw threads on both ends. They have primarily been used to support pipework, pipes through which fluids and gasses pass. As such, U-bolts were measured using pipework engineering speak. A U-bolt would be described by the size of pipe it was supporting. U-bolts are also used to hold ropes together.

In reality, the 40 nominal bore part bears little resemblance to the size and dimensions of the U-bolt. The nominal bore of a pipe is actually a measurement of the inside diameter of the pipe. Engineers are interested in this because they design a pipe by the amount of fluid/gas it can transport. As U-bolts are now being used by a much wider audience to clamp any kind of tubing/round bar, then a more convenient measurement system needs to be used.

Four elements uniquely define any U-bolt:

  1. Material type (for example bright zinc-plated mild steel)
  2. Thread dimensions (for example M12 * 50 mm)
  3. Inside diameter (for example 50 mm – the distance between the legs)
  4. Inside height (for example 120 mm)

Pipe Clamp

A pipe clamp is a bolted pipe attachment that clamps around the pipe to connect the pipe to the remainder of a pipe hanger assembly. In woodwork, a pipe clamp uses clamp heads produced commercially by numerous manufacturers. They are available in various diameter sizes, commonly ½”or ¾”, suited to the same diameter piping. The pipe is usually threaded on both ends. One head is fixed on the pipe by spinning it onto standard pipe threads.

This head includes the screw mechanism for tightening the clamp. The other, movable, head slides onto the other end of the pipe. This head has a mechanism, often a series of movable “clutches” which allow it to slide along the pipe when setting up the clamping operation, but which lock onto the pipe when clamping pressure is applied.

Pipe clamps serve a similar purpose to bar clamps but are generally less expensive to purchase and have a versatility derived from the ability to use a variety of lengths of pipe to suit one’s needs. The same clamp heads might be switched over from a two-foot length of pipe to a twelve-foot length as the project at hand dictates. Having threads at both ends of the pipe also allows the use of pipe couplings, joining two lengths of pipe to extend the length of the clamp. In piping, a pipe clamp is a bottled attachment that clamps around the pipe. The clamps can be manufactured with black or galvanized finishes.

Clevis Hanger

A clevis hanger is a pipe attachment providing vertical adjustment, consisting of a clevis-type top bolted to a formed steel bottom strap. A clevis fastener is a three-piece fastener system consisting of a clevis, clevis pin, and tang. They are recommended for the suspension of non-insulated or insulated, stationary pipelines. A clevis is U shaped or forked metal connector which can be connected or fastened by a bolt or pin passing through the end of the connector.  A clevis was used to connect two items, one with a ring at the end, and one that would fit in the U and had a hole in it for the pin to go through.

Clevis hangers can be known also, as Ancillary Equipment, these components include Beam Attachments, Hanger Rods, Turn Buckles, Clevises, Eye Nuts, and Pipe Clamps. Hanger rods and fittings are available in thread sizes ranging from multiple sizes. Pipe clamps are supplied in both two and three-bolt configurations from a range of materials, a clevis hanger, is basically pipe support to hang pipe and steady the loads of the weight and gravitational forces.

Although a clevis hanger is pipe support, it is just one of the components in a piping system that handles the piping system’s weights and movement.  However, the pipe clevis is probably used more than any other type of hanger. Other factors a pipe clevis handles, are the sustained or steady loads such as the internal fluid pressure, external pressure, the weight of pipe due to the gravity forces.

Even though a Clevis Hanger is recommended for non-insulated pipe, there are many exceptions, where the pipe is insulated. This s seen in the LNG plants where the pipe may be insulated with Polyurethane Foam, synthetic wood, or gel. On these occasions, a special hanger can be designed.  Applications could include Cold Shoes, Hot Shoes, Pipe Anchors, Pipe Guides, Risers, and HVAC. 

Service would include steam, gas air, water. There are many more requirements for clevis hangers in HVAC and commercial applications. Every commercial building, apartment, and even commercial parking garages, could have thousands of pipe clevises and pipe supports.

There are four major types type of pipe clevis.

1) Adjustable Clevis Hanger.

2) Clevis Hanger for insulated lines.

3) Roller Hangers.

4) Trapeze Roller Hanger.

The adjustable clevis hanger is most common. A clevis hanger can be as small as ½” or larger than 36” s. The material normally is Carbon Steel.  The finish can be black or galvanized.  A special coating is available in the market. The adjustable clevis hanger is recommended for the suspension of non-insulated, stationary pipelines.  This is U-bolt design has a yoke on the outside of a lower U-strap. Components include a top yoke, bottom strap, and bolt or stud with nut assembled. The height can be adjusted with nuts. 

The Clevis Hanger for insulated lines has been lengthened to allow for room for the insulated pipe. The most common material for this type of Clevis Hanger is carbon steel.  However, another material is available for special services. Roller Hangers can be a type of a Clevis Hanger.  This service is for the suspension of pipe from a single rod where horizontal movement may occur because of expansion or contraction. 

A roller is on the base of the clevis and allows the pipe to move where there may be horizontal movement because of expansion or contraction. The roller trapeze is for suspension of pipe from two rods where longitudinal movement due to expansion or contraction may occur. These types of Clevis Hangers are also adjustable for vertical movement. 

Pipe supports and Pipe Clevis hangers have been instrumental in the support of piping systems for thousands of years. In fact, one of the oldest known plumbing systems was created by the ancient Egyptians around 4000 – 2500 B.C. Since their lives depended on the ebb and flow of the Nile River, Egyptian engineers created and used a very intricate piping system to keep the water flowing where it needed to go.

The most impressive of old plumbing systems can be found in ancient Rome. The Roman Empire has been admired for hundreds of years due to its engineering ability, and you can see that in its sewer system. The first Roman sewer system was called the Cloaca Maxima and was built in the sixth century B.C. What started as an open channel was eventually closed and vaulted. The Cloaca Maxima is the oldest plumbing system that’s still in use today, and amazingly some of the original masonry work is still holding together.

The Romans also created aqueducts, adding a new level of ingenuity to the oldest known plumbing systems. Relying on gravity, aqueducts transported water from the mountains above the cities to public bathhouses and fountains. The water used there was then drained to the Cloaca Maxima. This created a constant supply of running water that helped to clear the waste and other obstacles from the sewer. 

Clevis Hangers we made of hemp rope and leather, and even cooper.  What we learned from the oldest plumbing systems, especially from the Romans, has helped us shape our modern-day plumbing systems. The remnants of these ancient plumbing systems have been copied and are still being used.  Even older systems used clevis hangers. One of the oldest known plumbing systems was created by the ancient Egyptians around 4000 – 2500 B.C.

Since their lives depended on the ebb and flow of the Nile River, Egyptian engineers created and used a very intricate piping system to keep the water flowing where it needed to go. These pipes were initially made from clay and were later upgraded to copper. They created this sophisticated system to help move water from the Nile to help people water their crops and even provide their homes with running water.

These systems were discovered in the excavations of ancient tombs, as the Pharaohs’ burial chambers were built complete with draining bathtubs and other lifestyle necessities for the afterlife. Plumbing wasn’t unique to Egypt at this point in history, however, since some of the first water pipes were discovered from around 4000 B.C. in the Indus River Valley in India. They may not be an actual Clevis hanger, but they were the U-shaped component of a shackle for attaching a drawbar to a plow or similar implement.

The actual Clevis was patented in 1897, dated January 11, 1897.  Patent No. 355,980.  The following is from Franks S. Dimon, of Fort Scott, Kansas, Clevis Hanger patent. To all whom it may concern: Be it known that I, FRANK. S. DIMON, a citizen of the United States, residing at Fort Scott, in the county of Bourbon and State of Kansas, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Clevises; and I do hereby declare the following to be a full, clear, and exact description of the invention, such as will enable others skilled in the art to which it appertains to make and use the same, reference being had to the accompanying drawings, and to letters or figures of reference marked thereon, which form a part of this specification.

This invention relates to clevises, and particularly to that class which is provided with a locking device for the clevis-pin to keep it from dropping or working out, and the object of the invention is to provide a clevis with a locking device which shall be easy to use and certain in its operation. The invention consists in the improved locking clevis-pin, as hereinafter fully described and claimed, the essential features of which are a pin having a fixed lug at the bottom and a movable Spring-pressed lug at the top, the two being on opposite sides of the pin, the head of the pin being made in two parts, one part fixed to the pin, while the other is an extension of the movable lug, by means of which the lug can be retracted. In the accompanying drawings,

On the outside of the practice is formed a thumb-piece, g, for convenience in operating the device. To insert the pin, it is dropped through the hole a, the lug G passing through the W-shaped side of the opening, and then through hole an until the lug G strikes the clevis, when, by pushing on the head, the bottom lug, G, will pass through the hole a, the movable part of the head carrying the lug G yielding through the spring. Then, by turning the clevis pin halfway round, the lug G will come in line with the V-shaped side of the hole a, and will drop into it, and beheld there by the spring, thus locking the pin so that it cannot be turned until the lug G’ is retracted by hand, the lug G preventing the pin from being withdrawn until the pin is turned half round. To remove the pin, the lug G’ is withdrawn by means of the thumb-piece g and the clevis pin turned half round, when it can be pulled out. Having thus described my invention, what I claim as new, and desire to secure by Letters Patent is

1. The combination, with a clevis having holes at the end thereof for a clevis-pin, of a pin having a lug at the bottom adapted to pass through the holes of the clevis and to engage with the clevis when the pin is turned so that the pin cannot be withdrawn, and spring pressed movable lug at the head of the pin adapted to fit into the upper hole of the clevis by the side of the pin to prevent the pin from being turned, Substantially as and for the purpose set forth

2. The combination, with a clevis having holes a and Co. The head C is formed, as the holes a and a’, of the clevis-pin.

The Clevis Hanger is an integral part of the pipe support system. Since the ancient civilizations. To the turn of the century and the 21 centuries. Clevis hangers may be simple and small, but they are the key to the piping and pipe supports. Without the pipe clevis. Would pipe be laying on the ground? Would civilization move forward without sewers and water transportation?  Are clevis hangers more important than transistors, electricity, or antibiotics?  Probably not.  However, without the Clevis Pipe Hanger, would these other important discoveries have happened?  The Clevis Pipe Hangers is not as exciting. But we owe a lot to this small little pipe support. 

Pipe Saddle

Pipe saddles can be an intricate part of the pipe support and piping system.  Pipe saddles are defined as a is a structure consisting of a saddle and integral base that is used to support the pipe by transmitting the load or forces to the items having the same vortex or adjoining structure.  Pipe saddles protect pipes and pipe insulation from damage.  Pipe saddles come in sizes from 4” to over 36”. 

The material is usually carbon steel.  However, special alloys like stainless steel are not uncommon. Some configurations of pipe saddles, allow them to be adjusted to compensate for pipe and insulation. Applications include stanchion support, insulation protection, keeping heat and cold losses to a minimum, support of piping that may expand due to temperature variation, and vertical support. Pipe saddles are uses for cryogenic services and extreme heat applications.

USA inventor James G Hayden applied for patented the pipe saddle in 1912.  It took four years for the pipe saddle to be approved in 1916. The following is an actual excerpt from Mr. Hayden’s patent. “To all whom it may concern Be it known that I. Jnms G. HAYDEN, a citizen of the United States, and a resident of New Lexington. In the county of Perry and the State of Ohio, have invented a new and Improved Pipe-Saddle. of which the following 1s a full, clear, and exact description. My invention relates to a new and 1mproved form of pipe saddle adapted for pipes of different diameters.

In the common pipe saddle now in use, the saddles are made for different sized pipes having a gasket of uniform thickness,

which gasket necessarily cannot make a tight joint when the pipes are variable in size.

An object of my invention is to eliminate the objections inherent to the old form of saddles and to provide a tight connection. irrespective of the size of the pipe. or the inequalities of the surface of the same.

I attain the above-outlined object by constructing a saddle having a recessed pocket. disposed within which pocket is a gasket concentrically disposed relative to the open ng in the pipe. said gasket adapted to be brought into firm engagement with the pipe by straps straddling the pipe.” As in all patients, the pipe saddle patent expired in 20 years.

Today pipe saddles are manufactured in almost every industrialized country. They are used in every major industry.  Pipe Saddles can be found in commercial buildings, in the power industry, oil and gas, ships, and LNG plants. Piping components are the veins that keep energy and water running through the heart of our globe.  Pipe supports such as springs, clevis, constants, and variables are needed to make energy.  The pipe saddle is what strengthens the whole system.